The Periodic Table of Elements: Becka and Jess Style. = By: Rebekah Hollingsworth and Jess Goss

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The Periodic Table of Elements: Becka and Jess Style. =)

  • By: Rebekah Hollingsworth and Jess Goss


John Newlands--proposed an organization scheme for the elements.  

  • Lothar Meyer--

    demonstrated a connection between atomic mass and elemental properties.


Dmitri Mendeleev- organized the elements into the first periodic table.

  • Henry Moseley-arrranged the elements by atomic mass.

  •  



The Modern Periodic Table



Groups... The boxes arranged in order of increasing atomic number into a series of columns (GROUPS) or families

  • Periods....

  • The rows of boxes are called periods.



Valence electrons-

electrons in outermost orbitals/ determine chemical properties of element  
  • Orbitals-

    describe electrons probable location (orbitals s,p,d,f).


TRENDS

  • TRENDS



Atomic Radius- half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together.

  • trends within periods--decrease in atomic radii as you move left to right.



Ionic Radius-is a measure of the size of an ion in a crystal lattice

  • trends within periods-- the size of the positive ions gradually decrease from left to right.



Ionization Energy-

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
  • trends within periods-- first ionization energies generally increase as you move left to right.

  •  



Electronegativity- indicates relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond.

  • trends within groups-- decreases as you move down



  •  



S- Block Elements The s-block metals vary from extremely soft (all the alkali metals) to quite hard (beryllium). With the exception of beryllium and magnesium, the metals are too reactive for any structural use except as very minor components of alloys with lead.



The S-Block

  •  



The uses for Hydrogen.

    • It can be used as a lifting agent.
    • It can be used as a fuel.
    • The most common use for hydrogen is in chemical reactions and reactions.
  •  

  •  



Alkali Metals...

  • Lithium (Li)- number 3 on periodic table. Compounds are used in dehumidifiers. Lithium carbonate is used to strenthen glass and as a drug to treat bipolar disorders.



Alkali Metals... (continued)...

  • Rubidium (Rb)- number 37. it has been considered for use in an "ion engine"



Alkaline Earth Metals...

  • Beryllium (Be)- number 4. used to moderate neutrons in nuclear reactors.



Alkaline Earth Metals..(continued)

  •  Strontium (Sr)- number 38. Gives some fireworks their crimson color.



  • P- Block Elements...

    •  


The Boron Group...

  • Boron (B)- number 5. used as a cleaning agent and as fireproof insulation.



The Carbon Group...

  • Carbon (C)- number 6. obtained from coal deposits.



The Nitrogen Group...

  • Nitrogen (N)- number 7.The largest use of nitrogen is for the production of ammonia.



The Oxygen Group...

  • Sulfur (S)- # 16. used to preserve fruit and as an antibacterial agent.  



Halogens..  

  • Fluorine (F)- # 9. used in toothpaste and water to protect tooth enamel.



The Noble Gases

  • There are six noble gases. Helium, Argon Neon, Krypton. Xenon, and Radon are the six noble gases.



Helium

  • Helium is lighter than air. Its symbol is He and it is the second element.Helium was found on the sun before it ws found on the Earht. Helium is found in natural gas deposits. Its common uses are low-temperature cooling systems and pressure, lighter-than-air objects and purge systems



Neon

  • Neon is a noble gas. It is the tenth element and its symbol is Ne. It can be found in volcanic eruptions. It is commonly used for lights.



Argon

  • Argon is the eighteenth element in the periodic table, as well as a noble gas. It is commonly used in dating rocks with a process called Potassium-Argon dating.



Xenon

  • Xenon is the 54th element on the periodic table. Its symbol is Xe. It is commonly used to replace the halogen in headlights. It makes them brighter.



Krypton

  • Krypton is the 36th element in the periodic table. Its symbol is Kr. Its common uses are for photographic flash lamps for high speed photography



Radon

  • Radon is the 86th element on the periodic table. At normal room temperatures, radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas. Small amounts of radon are sometimes used by hospitals to treat some forms of cancer



 Little is known about the elements 113-118 (Ununtrium, Ununquadium, Ununpentium, Ununhexium, and Ununoctium). They currently have no uses outside of basic scientific research.



D-Block Elements.

The Transition Metals

  •  



Scandium (Sc)- # 21. Alloys of scandium and aluminum are used in some kinds of athletic equipment

  • Titanium (Ti)- # 22. Since titanium does not react within the human body, it is used to create artificial hips, pins for setting bones and for other biological implants.

  •  



Manganese (Mn)- # 25.Manganese is added to molten steel to remove oxygen and sulfur and is alloyed with steel to make it easier to form and work with and to increase steel's strength and resistance to impact.  

  • Cobalt (Co)- # 27. Although cobalt is used in electroplating to give objects an attractive surface that resists oxidation, it is more widely used to form alloys.



Copper (Cu)- # 29. used in electrical wiring.   

  • Zinc (Zn)- # 30.used as a protective coating for other metals.

  •  



Niobium (Nb)- # 41. Niobium is used as an alloying agent and for jewelry, but perhaps its most interesting applications are in the field of superconductivity.

  • Molybdenum (Mo)- # 42. Molybdenum is primarily used as an alloying agent in steel.



Rhodium (Rh)- # 45. Rhodium is used to make electrical contacts, as jewelry and in catalytic converters, but is most frequently used as an alloying agent in other materials.

  • Palladium (Pd)- # 46. Palladium is used to make springs for watches, surgical instruments, electrical contacts and dental fillings and crowns.



Lutetium (Lu)- # 71. some of its radioactive isotopes can be used as a catalyst in the cracking of petroleum products and a catalyst in some hydrogenation and polymerization processes.

  • Hafnium (Hf)- # 72.used in the control rods of nuclear reactors. Hafnium is also used in vacuum tubes as a getter, a material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes



Rhenium (Re)- # 75. used in flash lamps for photography and for filaments in mass spectrographs and ion gages

  • Osmium (Os)- # 76.  primarily used to make very hard alloys. Osmium alloys can be found in ball point pen tips, fountain pen tips, record player needles, electrical contacts and other devices where frictional wear must be minimized.



Gold (Au)- # 79. Thin sheets of gold, known as gold leaf, are primarily used in arts and crafts for gilding.Gold alloys are used to make jewelry, decorative items, dental fillings and coins.

  • Mercury (Hg)- # 80. used to make thermometers, barometers and other scientific instruments



Seaborgium (Sg)- # 106. there are currently no uses for seaborgium outside of basic scientific research.

  • Bohrium (Bh)- # 107. there are currently no uses for bohrium outside of basic scientific research.



Darmstadtium (Ds)- # 110. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.

  • Roentgenium (Rg)- # 111. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.



F-Block Elements (The Inner Transition Metals)

  • They are characterized by having two s-electrons in their outer shell (n) and f-electrons in their inner (n–1) shell.



The Lanthanide Elements



Lanthenum

  • Lanthenum is the first of the lanthanide series. It Lanthanum is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights. Lanthanum also makes up about 25% of Misch metal, a material that is used to make flints for lighters. Lanthana  is used to make the glass used in camera lenses and in other special glasses.



Cerium

  • Cerium is the second element in the Lanthanide group. It is found in allanite, monazite, bastanite, cerite, and samarskite. It is used on pyrophoric alloys in cigarette lighters.



Praseodyminum

  • Praseodyminum is the 59th element on the periodic table. It is the third lanthanide element. Praseodyminum is widely used as a core materal for carbon arcs used by the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. Some of the salts are even used to color glasses.



Neodymium

  • Didymium, of which neodymium is a component, is used for coloring glass to make welders' goggles. Neodymium salts are also used for colorant for enamels.



Promethium

  • Promethium could be used to make a nuclear powered battery. This type of battery would use the beta particles emitted by the decay of promethium to make a phosphor give off light. This light would then be converted into electricity by a device similar to a solar cell. It is expected that this type of battery could provide power for five years.



Samarium

  • Samarium oxide has been used in optical glass ro absorb the infrared. samarium is also used in carbon-arc lighting in the motion picture industry.



Europium

  • Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements. There are no commercial applications for europium metal, although it has been used to dope some types of plastics to make lasers. Since it is a good absorber of neutrons, europium is being studied for use in nuclear reactors.Europium oxide, one of europium's compounds, is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors.



Gadolinium

  • Gadolinium has the greatest ability to capture thermal neutrons of all known elements and can be used as control rods for nuclear reactors.Gadolinium can be combined with yttrium to form garnets that have applications in microwave technology.



Terbium

  • Terbium is used to dope some types of solid-state devices and, along with zirconium dioxide as a crystal stabilizer in fuel cells that operate at high temperatures.Sodium terbium borate, a terbium compound, is used to make laser light.



Dysprosium

  • There are no commercial applications for dysprosium. Since it easily absorbs neutrons and has a high melting point, dysprosium might be alloyed with steel for use in nuclear reactors. When combined with vanadium and other rare earth elements, dysprosium is used as a laser material.



 Holmium

  • Holmium has no commercial applications, although it has unusual magnetic properties that could be exploited in the future.

  • Holmium forms no commercially important compounds. Some of holmium's compounds include: holmium oxide holmium fluoride  and holmium iodide.



Erbium

  • Erbium is alloyed with vanadium to make it softer and easier to shape. Erbium is added to fiber optic cables as a doping agent where it is used as a signal amplifier. Erbium also has some uses in the nuclear power industry.



Thulium

  • Thulium is the least abundant of the naturally occurring rare earth elements. Metallic thulium is relatively expensive and has only recently become available. It currently has no commercial applications, although one of its isotopes, thulium-169, could be used as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines.



Ytterbium

  • Ytterbium has few uses. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable where it can be used as an amplifier. One of ytterbium's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines.



The Actinide Elements...



Neptunium (Np)- # 93. Neptunium-237 is used in neutron detectors

  • Plutonium (Pu)- # 94. used as fuel in nuclear power plants.

  •  



Berkelium (Bk)- # 97. no known uses for berkelium and its compounds outside of basic scientific research.

  • Fermium (Fm)- # 100.currently no uses for fermium outside of basic scientific research.

  •  



Mendelevium (Md)- # 101. has no uses outside of basic scientific research

  • Lawrencium (Lr)- # 103. currently no uses for it outside of basic scientific research.



More Sources... =)

  • All pictures are from Google.

  • http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/59.html

  •  http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/60.html

  •  http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele061.html

  •  http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/62.html

  •  http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele064.html

  •  http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele065.html

  •  

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