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The pri mate so ciet y of g reat br itai - səhifə 4


 



 



Activity Pattern in Owl Monkeys: Are Populations Living in Rainforest 



Habitats Cathemeral? 

Shenaz N. Khimji, Simon Bearder, Giuseppe Donati 

 

Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Department of Anthropology and 

Geography, Oxford Brookes University 

Email: shenazkhimji@googlemail.com 

 

Cathemeral activity, i.e. the ability to be active during the day and at night, 



has been recently discovered in one population of owl monkeys, Aotus 

azarae, living in the seasonal habitat of Chaco, Argentina. These owl 

monkeys exhibit a significant amount of diurnal activity that is influenced 

by temperature and moonlight of the previous nights. This finding raises the 

question whether other owl monkey populations, a genus considered to be 

strictly nocturnal so far, could show cathemeral activity in less seasonal 

habitats, i.e. where temperature, rainfall and luminosity variations are less 

extreme. To answer this question we investigated the diurnal activity of one 

group of Aotus nigriceps (black- headed owl monkey) living in the Manu 

Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Peru in 2004, 2005, and 2008 over different 

seasons. A total of 864 hours of observations were carried out. Active and 

non-active behaviours were collected from dawn to dusk and moon phase 

was recorded. The data were recorded using one zero sampling at one-

minute intervals during day light. Additionally, characteristics of sleeping/ 

resting sites and abiotic data were collected. The Peruvian owl monkeys 

were found to be nocturnal over the study period. Overall, diurnal activity 

was minimal (4.7%) and the animals remained around their sleeping sites. 

Also, diurnal activity did not change seasonally and was not correlated with 

variations in temperature, rainfall, or moon luminosity. We conclude that in 

non-seasonal, more stable rainforest habitats owl monkeys maintain a 

nocturnal habit. Possible ultimate factors related to this activity pattern are 

discussed including hypotheses relating to predation, resource competition, 

canopy cover and forest type.    



 



 

19


Endoparasite Infection and Environmental Conditions in Collared 



Lemurs, Eulemur collaris

, in Southeastern Madagascar 

Kristine Lazdane

1

, Anke Broll



2

, Ole Theisinger

2

, Simon Bearder



1

, Giuseppe 

Donati

1

 



1

Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Department of Anthropology and 

Geography, Oxford Brookes University; 

2

Biozentrum Grindel, Department 



of Animal Ecology and Conservation, University of Hamburg 

Email:  rubija.l@inbox.lv 

 

Habitat quality, structure and disturbance influence the dynamics of 



parasitic diseases in wildlife populations. The order Primates appears to be 

particularly vulnerable to parasite infection because of the fast degradation 

of their habitat and their gregarious lifestyles. So far, long-term field studies 

have shown a correlation between parasite infections and environmental 

factors but this relationship remains poorly known in prosimians. We 

studied three populations of collared lemurs, Eulemur collaris, in order to 

investigate (i) whether increased levels of anthropogenic habitat disturbance 

caused increased parasite infection and load in lemurs and (ii) whether 

females were more susceptible than males to pathogens. To answer these 

questions we compared frequency and load of gastrointestinal parasite 

infection of collared lemurs among three littoral forest sites in south-eastern 

Madagascar: Sainte Luce, Mandena, and Nahampoana. The three locations 

exhibited different levels of anthropogenic impact in terms of habitat 

modifications and presence of visitors. We found that the three populations 

were infected by Nematoda, but the number of non-infected lemurs was 

significantly lower in the intact forest of Sainte Luce than in the degraded 

forest of Mandena or in the exotic habitat of Nahampoana Reserve. All the 

collared lemurs living in Nahampoana Reserve were infected. There was no 

significant difference between sexes in either the number of infected 

animals or in the parasite load. This preliminary study points to the fact that 

the quality of habitat and the probability of infection by endoparasites in 

lemurs are closely related. 



 



 



Impact of the Pet Trade on the Margarita Monkeys Cebus apella 



margaritae

 

Natalia Ceballos Mago, Carlos Enrique Gonzalez, David J. Chivers 

Wildlife Research Group, Anatomy School, University of Cambridge 

Email: nc284@cam.ac.uk 

 

The Critically Endangered Margarita monkey (Cebus apella margaritae) is 



threatened by hunting for pest control, pet-trade and habitat fragmentation. 

This is the only wild primate species on Isla de Margarita (920 km

2

), 


located in the Venezuelan Caribbean Sea. As part of a pioneer long-term 

project for the conservation of this monkey, wild population surveys, pet 

surveys and interviews with hunters were conducted across the Nueva 

20


Esparta State (Margarita, Coche and Cubagua islands). Information about 

pet identification, current location, origin, captive conditions and attitude of 

people and hunters to wild monkeys and pets was gathered; 162 monkey 

pets of five different species were found; 37 of them were Margarita 

monkeys. These numbers represent a large increase in the pet trade in the 

last 20 years. National and international illegal pet-trade was revealed. 

There is increasing concern about the risk of disease transmission and 

hybridisation on Isla de Margarita, because the wedge-capped capuchin 



Cebus olivaceus, was the commonest pet found and their presence in the 

field was confirmed during survey. A rescue centre for monkeys is needed 

to receive pure Margarita monkeys that can be managed as a captive 

population for conservation actions. To select the monkeys for this purpose, 

a project focused on health evaluation and conservation genetics of the 

captive individuals is being carried out in collaboration with Venezuelan 

researchers.  

 



 



High Frequency of Assumed Self-medicative Behaviour by ‘Village’ 



Chimpanzees in a Disturbed Farm–forest Mosaic in Western Uganda 

Matthew R. McLennan 

Anthropology Centre for Conservation, Environment and Development 

Oxford Brookes University 

Email: mmclennan@brookes.ac.uk 

 

Chimpanzee populations across Africa swallow the whole leaves of certain 



plant species with a rough surface without chewing. This rare behaviour 

apparently confers no nutritional benefit since the folded leaves are passed 

undigested in the dung. Instead, leaf-swallowing is thought to serve a self-

medicative function by controlling nematode infections, or relieving 

abdominal pain caused by parasite infections generally. Studies have shown 

a relationship between the occurrences of whole leaves and both adult 

nematodes and tapeworm proglottids in chimpanzee dung, suggesting the 

leaves help to expel parasites. I report unusually high levels of whole-leaf 

swallowing in a newly described chimpanzee community at Bulindi, a 

highly disturbed forest–farm mosaic in western Uganda. Fresh faecal 

samples were analysed over 13 months between Jan 2007–Jan 2008 (N = 

1436; monthly mean = 110.5 samples). Leaf-swallowing occurred in all 

months and elevated levels were not confined to wet months, as observed 

elsewhere. Mean monthly % dungs containing whole undigested leaves was 

10.7 (range 3.7–23.7%) – a higher frequency than reported elsewhere. 2.4% 

of dungs contained macroscopic parasites: adult nematodes (0.8%) and 

tapeworm proglottids (1.7%). There was no correlation across months 

between % dungs with whole leaves and % with parasites. Unlike in 

previous studies, the proportion of dungs containing whole leaves and also 

tapeworms or nematodes was very low. High levels of leaf-swallowing – 

occurring year-round – suggest these chimpanzees are especially susceptible 

21


to intestinal parasite infections. The frequency of the behaviour, and lack of 

a strong relationship between leaf-swallowing and parasite expulsion, 

implies leaf-swallowing by this community may be a generalised adaptation 

to infection by multiple parasites, which may respond differently to the 

behaviour. Thus leaf-swallowing at Bulindi may conform best to the ‘relief 

from abdominal pain’ hypothesis, though nematode infections may still be 

controlled by the behaviour. Microscopic parasitical surveys of both apes 

and humans at Bulindi are needed for devising strategies to prevent disease 

transmission.  

 



 



Microhabitat Variables Influencing Home Range use in Two Troops of 



Western Purple-faced Langurs (Trachypithecus vetulus nestor)

 in 



Talangama, Sri Lanka 

Richard S. Moore, Caitlin  Eschmann and Anna Nekaris

 

Anthropology Centre for Conservation, Environment and Development 



Oxford Brookes University 

Email: rich_s_moore@hotmail.com 

 

 

This study concerns the survival potential of Sri Lanka’s endemic Western 



purple-faced leaf monkey (Trachypithecus vetulus nestor) with a focus on 

the microhabitat variables that influence its presence in small forest 

fragments within an anthropogenic dominated landscape. The research was 

carried out in the Talangama Wetland area of Sri Lanka’s Wet Zone for 

three months in 2007. Detailed measurements of microhabitat variables in 

the home ranges of two neighbouring troops were taken, including species 

richness, numerous tree parameters, tree densities and percentage of food 

trees. The time T. v. nestor spent in each sub-site within the home range was 

also recorded (a period of nine days for each troop), and statistical tests 

were conducted to investigate any variable that may influence the primate’s 

presence within that area. Bivariate correlative tests show significant 

positive relationships between time spent in area and mean basal area 

(p<0.001), tree height (p<0.05) and DBH (p<0.05). A multiple regression 

analysis using the backwards regression method reveals that the strongest 

influence of primate presence is mean basal area (p < 0.01). As less than 1% 

of forest remains in the region to which this subspecies is endemic, their 

reliance on larger fruit trees that are predominantly used by humans makes 

this taxon almost fully reliant on the continued tolerance of local people. 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 

22


Trade in Nycticebus

 Past and Present: An Assessment of Southeast 



Asian Markets and Internet Websites 

Angelina Navarro-Montes & Anna Nekaris  

Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Department of Anthropology and 

Geography, Oxford Brookes University 

Email: angelinipannini@hotmail.com 

 

 



The IUCN Red List has classified all five species of Nycticebus spp. as 

Endangered or Vulnerable and CITES has transferred slow lorises to 

Appendix I. Although legally protected, studies show Nycticebus spp. are in 

high demand within Southeast Asia for pets, meat and traditional medicine. 

From 24 surveys spanning 15 years, we estimated that a minimum of 1400 

slow loris individuals were taken from the wild. Counts of confiscated 

individuals in rescue centres and photos received of such individuals over a 

two-year period revealed an additional 500 individuals taken from the wild. 

Both of these figures clearly represent only the tip of the iceberg. Primary 

research in Indonesia in 2007 found only three slow lorises and 81 other 

primates available for trade, significantly fewer numbers than previous 

research, suggesting that trade turnover cannot be determined solely by 

snap-shot surveys. Such data show huge gaps as trade is rarely documented 

to species level. Data on the trade of Nycticebus species available on the 

Internet were compiled over a ten-month period, addressing the need to 

monitor this new platform for illegal trade. Public perceptions based on 

feedback from filesharing sites, were generally in favour of keeping slow 

lorises as pets. Data obtained from retail websites provided few data 

showing the deficiency of knowledge relating to the scale and impact this 

trade may have on protected primates. Such a large volume of trade has led 

to the conclusion that slow lorises cannot endure these off-take levels. 

 

 



Analysis of Deaths of Grey Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus nordicus



by Electrocution on Power Lines in Sri Lanka 

Vijitha Perera

1

and Anna  Nekaris



2

 

1



Department of Wildlife Conservation, Sri Lanka; 

2

Nocturnal Primate 



Research Group, Department of Anthropology and Geography, Oxford 

Brookes University 

Email: vijitha_wildlife@yahoo.com 

 

 

The endemic, endangered grey slender loris, Loris l. nordicus, is widely 

distributed over Sri Lanka’s Dry Zone. Destruction of habitats and exposure 

to non-insulated power lines are major causes that lead to death, but require 

more study. This study was conducted in Polonnnaruwa, Anuradhapura, 

Puttalam, and Kurunagala Districts for 9 months in 2007. Power lines were 

examined for electrocuted carcasses while travelling by vehicle. Localities, 

description of vegetation, nearest tree from power lines, paths used to 

access lines, and level of human disturbance were recorded; carcasses were 

23


systematically examined. 1400 km were travelled, revealing 22 single 

carcasses, encountered in low (18%), moderate (41%) and high (41%) 

human density areas, and equally associated with low and moderate traffic 

levels. Animals approached lines from home garden vegetation. Most power 

lines in Sri Lanka are non-insulated. The Sri Lanka electricity board 

regularly clears vegetation adjacent to power lines to prevent leakages, 

accidents, and damage. The house supplying power lines are insulated, and 

may not be cleaned. Lorises use them as bridges for as much as 25 m, 

exploring to non-insulated wires, resulting in death when two wires touch. 

This study covered less than 1/15th of the road network within the study 

area. Therefore, death figures may be higher than recorded here. Further 

studies of population dynamics of animals that live in areas with and 

without power lines are required to reveal the severity of the problem. 

Awareness campaigns towards local residents are a major requirement to 

conserve grey slender loris. 

 



 



Love, Hate or Tolerate:  Farmers’ Attitudes and the Reality of Primate 



Crop-raiding in Buton Island, Indonesia.  

Nancy Priston  

Anthropology Centre for Conservation, Environment and Development 

Oxford Brookes University 

Email: npriston@brookes.ac.uk 

 

The relatively small Indonesian island of Buton is the last stronghold of the 



Buton macaque. With increasing clearance of land for subsistence 

agriculture this species is of conservation concern. Through interviews with 

local farmers and vegetation transects within farms this project has 

investigated the social, cultural and environmental context of crop-raiding. 

In order to understand both the actual levels of crop-damage and the 

farmers’ perceptions of it interviews were conducted with 155 farmers from 

four villages bordering the Lambusango Wildlife Reserve. Of those 

interviewed, 73 then had crop-damage measured in their farms. Farmers’ 

perceptions and measures of monkey damage were found to correlate 

positively, although weakly. Farmers experiencing low levels of crop-

damage were less accurate at estimating damage, in contrast to those 

experiencing medium or high levels of damage who made more accurate 

estimates and occasionally even underestimated it. However, attitudes 

towards and perceptions of the monkeys also affected farmers’ estimates of 

damage. Those farmers who had a positive attitude towards monkeys, 

despite suffering from high levels of damage, tended to underestimate 

damage. This suggests a degree of tolerance that is unusual in such conflict 

situations. Negative attitudes were associated with increased perceived, as 

opposed to actual damage. Thus while the ‘true’ extent of loss is an 

indicator of the potential costs to people, costs alone do not define 

perceptions. The attitudes of these farmers suggest that neither livelihoods 

24


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BLACK

(n=49) in Buriam Province, North-east Thailand. Skin scrapes were 

examined macro- and microscopically. The overall rate of sarcoptic mange 

infection was over 50%, but it tended to be higher in M. fascicularis (27/46) 

than in M. nemestrina,  M. mulatta and M. arctoides (8/23). The median 

estimated age for infected animals did not differ from that of non-infected 

animals (M. fascicularis: 3 vs 2 years; M. nemestrina: 2 vs 1 yrs). For both 

species individuals infected with sarcoptic mange were more likely to have 

a heavy parasite load. The frequent contact between macaques and domestic 

water buffalo, domestic pigs, cattle and village dogs and for some their 

human owners, is likely to have facilitated the high level of spread of this 

disease. When these animals do come in contact with their wild counterparts 

there is a high likelihood of sarcoptic mange spreading to wild populations.  

 



 



Nest Site Preferences of the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli



in the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary, Cameroon 

Ruth A. Wiseman

1

, Ymke Warren



2

, Aaron Nicholas

2

, Mary E. Mackenzie 



1

,

 



James P. Higham

1*

 



1

School of Human & Life Sciences, Roehampton University, London; 

2

Wildlife Conservation Society, Takamanda-Mone Landscape Project, 



Limbe, Cameroon; 

*

Current address: Institute for Mind and Biology, 



University of Chicago, Illinois, USA 

Email: boothie_rug@hotmail.com 

 

The Cross River gorilla is the most endangered of all Great Apes and its 



fragmented populations face severe threats from the bushmeat trade and 

habitat loss. Recent years have seen increased conservation efforts, but the 

details of the behavioural ecology of the individual populations in their 

varied habitats is lacking. Here we report on the production of a habitat map 

for the newly created Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary (KGS), Cameroon, and 

the results of an analysis of nest site habitat preferences shown by the 

gorillas that live there. We used GPS units to map areas of grassland and 

farm within the sanctuary, and recce walks to obtain data on habitat types. 

We then used GIS software to construct the habitat map. Nest sites from 

January 2006 to March 2008 were re-visited, and data on habitat features 

around these nests was collected. The habitat map revealed significant 

anthropogenic impact within the sanctuary boundary, with only 57% of the 

area surveyed being forested. Primary montane forest constitutes the 

majority of this forested area, with mixed herbs the most common 

understorey type. Analysis of nest sites showed that ground nests are 

preferentially constructed in the dry season, on precipitous slopes, in light 

gaps and clearings, with an understorey of mixed herbs. Tree nests are 

predominantly built in the wet season, in primary forest with saplings as the 

preferred understorey. The results have a number of implications for the 

conservation and management of the Cross River gorilla at KGS, and offer 

new insight into the nesting ecology of this subspecies. 

28

nor losses explain their perceptions and therefore there is no simplistic 



model for mitigating conflict that will suffice. 

 



 



Lemurs of Madagascar: Hunting, Killing and Conservation  

Hajarimanitra Rambeloarivony

1

, Jonah Ratsimbazafy



2

, Richard K. B. 

Jenkins



1



Oxford Brookes University; 

2

Université d’Antananarivo, Departement de 



Paleontology; 

3

School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen and 



Madagasikara Voakajy, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 

Email: haja_kely2005@yahoo.fr 

 

Madagascar lacks large mammals, such as seen in Africa and Asia. 



Consequently, lemurs play a more important role as protein sources for 

humans. Hunting occurs all-year-round in Madagascar, but reaches it peaks 

during certain periods. Malagasy people mainly trap lemurs for subsistence. 

Some groups, however, hunt as source of income, with few practising it as a 

sport. Lemurs are hunted almost everywhere they occur, from protected to 

unprotected areas and from the 80 g Microcebus to the 6 kg Propithecus, 

with different levels of pressure. Hunting techniques are diverse, including 

traditional snares to shooting, and using dogs. Hunting has a direct negative 

impact on lemur populations, and has indirect effects such as on 

reproduction success. Killing for non-consumptive purposes also occurs, 

such as the killing of aye ayes due to traditional beliefs of their being a bad 

omen. As hunting of lemurs is still less than in other primate range 

countries, there is still a chance to curtail it before it becomes more 

detrimental. Still, recent research suggests that the impact of hunting on 

certain lemur populations is more than expected. Promoting farming could 

be a good solution to reduce lemur hunting. Not only does it provide 

farmers with more revenue, but also meat from domestic animals tend to be 

preferred. Development projects, such as traditional textiles, tourism and 

scientific expeditions, could accompany such measures. Finally, we discuss 

the important of the role of education within rural communities to mitigate 

this threat. 

 

 

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