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The process of adapting animals for human use. Domestication gave humans a reliable source for meat, milk, and wool. It also enabled humans to do more work, such as plowing fields and traveling quickly

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Sana19.07.2017
Hajmi501 b.

The process of adapting animals for human use. Domestication gave humans a reliable source for meat, milk, and wool. It also enabled humans to do more work, such as plowing fields and traveling quickly.

  • The process of adapting animals for human use. Domestication gave humans a reliable source for meat, milk, and wool. It also enabled humans to do more work, such as plowing fields and traveling quickly.

  • Food gatherers’ understanding of plants probably spurred the development of farming. Meanwhile, hunters’ expert knowledge of wild animals likely played a key role in the domestication, or taming, of animals. They tamed horses, dogs, goats, and pigs. Like farming, domestication of animals came slowly. Stone Age hunters may have drive herds of animals into rocky ravines to be slaughtered. It was then a small step to drive herds into human-made enclosures. From there, farmers could keep the animals as a constant source of food and gradually tame them. Not only farmers domesticated animals. Pastoral nomads, or wandering herders, tended sheep, goats, camels, or other animals. These herders moved their animals to new pastures and watering places.

  • Today, the eroded and barren rolling foothills of the Zagros Mountains in northeastern Iraq seem an unlikely site for the birthplace of agriculture. According to archaeologist Robert Braidwood, thousands of years ago the environmental conditions of this region favored the development of agriculture. Wild wheat and barley, along with wild goats, pigs, sheep, and horses had once thrived near the Zagros Mountains. In the 1950’s, Braidwood led an archaeological dig at a site called Jarmo. He concluded that an agricultural settlement was built there about 9,000 years ago.



Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 1, Section 2

using complete sentences.

  • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 1, Section 2

    using complete sentences.

  • What kinds of problems did Stone Age peoples face?

  • Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different place?

  • In what ways did Neolithic peoples dramatically improve their lives?



A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements. All Civilizations have the following five characteristics:

  • A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements. All Civilizations have the following five characteristics:

  • Advanced Cities –

    Cities were the birthplaces of the first civilizations. A city is more than a large group of people living together. The size of the population alone does not distinguish a village from a city. One of the key-differences is that a city is a center of trade for a larger area. Ancient city-dwellers depended on trade. Farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to market in the cities. The city-dwellers themselves produced goods for exchange.
  • Specialized Workers / Artisans –

    See Term #15
  • Complex Institutions –

    See Term #16
  • Record Keeping –

    See Term #17
  • Advanced Technology –

    New tools and techniques are always needed to solve problems that emerge when large groups of people live together. In early civilizations, some farmers harnessed the powers of animals and nature. For example, they used ox-drawn plows to turn the soil. They also created irrigation systems to expand planting areas. Sumerian artisans relied on new technology to make their tasks easier. Around 3500 B.C., they first used the potter’s wheel to shape jugs, plates, and bowls. (For more, See Term #18)


Artisans - Skilled workers that began to specialize in their craft because of the steady food supply that came with systematic agriculture and domestication in the Neolithic Age. Artisans specialized in making goods, such as pottery, weapons, or architecture.

  • Artisans - Skilled workers that began to specialize in their craft because of the steady food supply that came with systematic agriculture and domestication in the Neolithic Age. Artisans specialized in making goods, such as pottery, weapons, or architecture.

  • As cities grew, so did the need for more specialized workers, such as traders, government officials, and priests. Food surpluses provided the opportunity for specialization – the development of skills in a specific kind of work. An abundant food supply allowed some people to become expert at jobs besides farming.

  • Some city-dwellers became artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hand. Specialization helped artisans develop their skill at designing jewelry, fashioning metal tools and weapons, or making clothes and pottery. The wide range of crafts artisans produced helped cities become centers of trade.



A long-lasting pattern of organization in a community, such as government, religion, and the economy.

  • A long-lasting pattern of organization in a community, such as government, religion, and the economy.

  • The soaring populations of early cities made government, or a system of ruling, necessary. In civilizations, leaders emerged to maintain order among people and to establish laws.

  • With the growth of cities, religion became a formal institution. Most cities had great temples where dozens of priests took charge of religious duties. Sumerians believed that every city belonged to a god who governed the city’s activities. The temple was the hub of both government and religious affairs. It also served as the city’s economic center. There food and trade items were distributed.





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