The Project Gutenberg ebook of The Golden Bough: a study - səhifə 48
Oels, in Silesia, Midsummer fires at, i. 170
Oeniadae, the ancient, i. 21
Oesel, Midsummer fires in the island of, i. 180;
St. John's herbs in the island of, ii. 49
Offenburg, in the Black Forest, Midsummer fires at, i. 168
Ogboni, a secret society on the Slave Coast, ii. 229 n.
Ogre whose soul was in a bird, story of the, ii. 98 sq.
“Oil of St. John” found on St. John's morning, ii. 82 sq.;
on oaks at Midsummer, 293
Oise, French department of, dolmen in, ii. 188
Ojebways, ritual of death and resurrection among the, ii. 268
Olala, secret society of the Niska Indians, ii. 271 sq.
Olaus Magnus, on were-wolves, i. 308
“Old Wife” (“Old Woman”), burning the, i. 116, 120
Oldenburg, the immortal dame of, i. 100;
Shrove Tuesday customs in, 120;
Easter bonfires in, 140;
burning or boiling portions of animals or things to force witch
to appear in, 321 sq.;
witch as toad in, 323;
children passed through a cleft oak as a cure in, ii. 171 sq.;
custom as to milking cows in, 185;
sick children passed through a ring of yarn in, 185
Olea chrysophilla, used as fuel for bonfire, ii. 11
“Oleander, the Sultan of the,” i. 18, ii. 51;
gathered at Midsummer, 51
Olive, the sacred, at Olympia, ii. 80 n. 3
Olofaet, a fire-god, ii. 295
Olympia, the sacred olive at, ii. 80 n. 3;
white poplar used for sacrifices to Zeus at, 90 n. 1, 91 n. 7
Omaha tribe, Elk clan of the, i. 11
—— women secluded at menstruation, i. 88 sq.
Omens from birds and beasts, i. 56;
from the smoke of bonfires, 116, 131, 337;
from flames of bonfires, 140, 142, 159, 165, 336, 337;
from cakes rolled down hill, 153;
from boiling milk, ii. 8;
from intestines of sheep, 13
—— of death, ii. 54, 64
—— of marriage drawn from Midsummer bonfires, i. 168, 174,
178, 185, 189, 339;
drawn from bonfires, 338 sq.;
from flowers, ii. 52 sq., 61
Onktehi, the great spirit of the waters among the Dacotas, ii.
Oran, bathing at Midsummer in, i. 216
Orange River, the Corannas of the, ii. 192
Oraons or Uraons of Bengal, their belief as to the transformation
of witches into cats, ii. 311 sq.
Ordeal of stinging ants undergone by girls at puberty, i. 61, and
by young men, 62 sqq.;
of boiling resin, 311
Ordeals as an exorcism, i. 66;
undergone by novices at initiation among the Bushongo, ii.
Order of nature, different views of the, postulated by magic and
science, ii. 305 sq.
Organs, internal, of medicine-man replaced by a new set at
initiation, ii. 237, 238 sq.
Origin of fire, primitive ideas as to the, ii. 295 sq.
Orinoco, the Banivas of the, i. 66;
the Guaraunos of the, 85; the Guayquiries of the, 85;
the Tamanaks of the, 61 n. 3
Ornament, external soul of woman in an ivory, ii. 156
Ornaments, amulets degenerate into, ii. 156 n. 2
Orne, Midsummer fires in the valley of the, i. 185
Oro, West African bogey, ii. 229
Orpheus and the willow, ii. 294
Orpine (Sedum telephium) at Midsummer, i. 196;
used in divination at Midsummer, ii. 61
Orvieto, Midsummer fires at, i. 210
Oster-Kappeln, in Hanover, the oak of the Guelphs at, ii. 166 sq.
Osterode, Easter bonfires at, i. 142
Ot Danoms of Borneo, seclusion of girls at puberty among the,
i. 35 sq.
Otati tribe of Queensland, their treatment of girls at puberty, i.
Ovambo, of German South-West Africa, custom observed by
young women at puberty among the, ii. 183
Owls, lives of persons bound up with those of, ii. 202;
sex totem of women, 217;
called women's “sisters,” 218
Ox burnt alive to stop a murrain, i. 301
—— -horns, external soul of chief in pair of, ii. 156
Ozieri, in Sardinia, bonfires on St. John's Eve at, i. 209
Padua, story of a were-wolf in, i. 309
Paha, on the Gold Coast, ii. 210
Pale colour of negro children at birth, ii. 251 n. 1, 259 n. 2
Palettes or plaques of schist in Egyptian tombs, ii. 155 n. 3
Palm-branches, consecrated, at Easter, i. 121
—— Sunday, palm-branches consecrated on, i. 144, ii. 30, 85 n.
boxwood blessed on, i. 184, ii. 47;
fern-seed used on, 288
—— -trees as life-indices, ii. 161, 163, 164
Papuan and Melanesian stocks in New Guinea, ii. 239
Papuans, life-trees among the, ii. 163
Paraguay, the Chiquites Indians of, ii. 226 n. 1
Parallelism between witches and were-wolves, i. 315, 321
Parasitic mountain-ash (rowan) used to make the divining-rod,
—— orchid growing on a tamarind, ritual at cutting, ii. 81
—— rowan, superstitions about a, ii. 281 sq.
Paris, effigy of giant burnt in summer fire at, ii. 38;
cats burnt alive at Midsummer in, 39
Parivarams of Madura, their seclusion of girls at puberty, i. 69
Parrot, external soul of warlock in a, ii. 97 sq.
—— and Punchkin, story of the, ii. 97 sq.
Parsees, their customs as to menstruous women, i. 85
Partridge, C., ii. 204
Paschal candle, i. 121, 122 n., 125
—— Mountains, i. 141
Passage over or through fire a stringent form of purification, ii.
through a cleft stick in connexion with puberty and
circumcision, 183 sq.
Passes, Indians of Brazil, seclusion of girls at puberty among
the, i. 59
Passing over fire to get rid of ghosts, ii. 17 sq.;
through cleft trees and other harrow openings to get rid of
ghosts, etc., 173 sqq.;
under a yoke as a purification, 193 sqq.
Passing children through cleft trees, ii. 168 sqq.;
children, sheep, and cattle through holes in the ground, ii. 190
Pastern-bone of a hare in a popular remedy, i. 17
Pastures fumigated at Midsummer to drive away witches and
demons, i. 170
Patani States, custom as to the after-birth in the, ii. 164
Paths, separate, for men and women, i. 78, 80, 89
Patiko, in the Uganda Protectorate, dread of lightning at, ii. 298
Paton, W. R., on the Golden Bough, ii. 319
Patriarch of Jerusalem kindles the new fire at Easter, i. 129
Patrician myrtle-tree at Rome, ii. 168
Patschkau, precautions against witches near, ii. 20 n.
Pâturages, processions with torches at, i. 108
Pawnee story of the external soul, ii. 151
Pawnees, human sacrifices among the, ii. 286 n. 2
Pazzi family at Florence, i. 126
Peace-making ceremony among the Masai, ii. 139 n.
Pear-tree as life-index of girl, ii. 165
—— -trees, torches thrown at, i. 108;
rarely attacked by mistletoe, ii. 315
Peas, boiled, distributed by young married couples, i. 111 n. 1
Pebbles thrown into Midsummer fires, i. 183
Peguenches, seclusion of girls at puberty among the, i. 59
Peking, life-tree of the Manchu dynasty at, ii. 167 sq.
Pelops at Olympia, ii. 90 n. 1
Pemba, island of, ii. 263
Pendle, the forest of, i. 245
Pennant, Thomas, on Beltane fires and cakes in Perthshire, i.
on Hallowe'en fires in Perthshire, 230
Pennefather River in Queensland, ii. 159;
treatment of girls at puberty on the, i. 38
Penny-royal burnt in Midsummer fire, i. 213, 214;
gathered at Midsummer, ii. 51
Pentamerone, the, ii. 105
Penzance, Midsummer fires at, i. 199 sq.
Perche, Midsummer fires in, i. 188;
St. John's herb gathered on Midsummer Eve in, ii. 46;
the Chêne-Doré in, 287 n. 1
Perforating arms and legs of young men, girls, and dogs as a
ceremony, i. 58
Pergine, in the Tyrol, fern-seed at, ii. 288 sq.
Perigord, the Yule log in, i. 250 sq., 253;
magic herbs gathered at Midsummer in, ii. 46;
crawling under a bramble as a cure for boils in, 180
Perkunas, Lithuanian god, his perpetual fire, ii. 91 n. 5
Péronne, mugwort at Midsummer near, ii. 58
Persians celebrate a festival of fire at the winter solstice, i. 269
Perthshire, Beltane fires and cakes in, i. 152 sq.;
traces of Midsummer fires in, 206;
Hallowe'en bonfires in, 230 sqq.;
need-fire in, 296 sq.
Peru, ceremony of the new fire in, i. 132
Perun, the oak sacred to the god, ii. 89
Petronius, his story of the were-wolf, i. 313 sq.
Pett, Grace, a witch, i. 304
Petworth, in Sussex, cleft ash-trees used for the cure of rupture
at, ii. 170
Phalgun, a Hindoo month, ii. 2
Philip and James, the Apostles, feast of, i. 158
Piazza del Limbo at Florence, i. 126
Picardy, Lenten fire-customs in, i. 113;
Midsummer fires in, 187
Piedmont, belief as to the “oil of St. John” on St. John's morning
in, ii. 82 sq.
Pietro in Guarano (Calabria), Easter custom at, i. 123
Pig, roast, at Christmas, i. 259;
burnt sacrifice of a, 302
Pigeon, external soul of ogre in a, ii. 100;
external soul of dragon in a, 112 sq.
Pigeon's egg, external soul of fairy being in, ii. 132 sq., 139
Pigeons deposit seed of mistletoe, ii. 316 n. 1
560The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (Third Edition, Vol. 11 of 12)
Pigs sacrificed, i. 9;
driven through Midsummer fire, 179;
driven through the need-fire, 272, 273, 274 sq., 275 sq., 276
sq., 277, 278, 279, 297;
offered to monster who swallows novices at initiation, ii. 240,
Pilgrimages on Yule Night in Sweden, i. 20 sq.
Pillar, external soul of ogre in a, ii. 100 sq.
Pima Indians, their purification for manslaughter, i. 21
Pines, Scotch, struck by lightning, proportion of, ii. 298
Pinewood, fire of, at Soracte, ii. 14, 91 n. 1
Pinoeh, district of South-Eastern Borneo, ii. 154 sq.
Pippin, king of the Franks, i. 270
Pitlochrie, in Perthshire, i. 230
Pitrè, Giuseppe, on St. John's Day in Sicily, ii. 29
Placci, Carlo, i. 127 n. 1
Place de Noailles at Marseilles, Midsummer flowers in the, ii. 46
Plane and birch, fire made by the friction of, i. 220
Plantain-tree, creeping through a cleft, as a cure, ii. 181
Plants, spirits of, in the form of snakes, ii. 44 n.;
external soul in, 159 sqq.;
and trees as life-indices, 160 sqq.
Plaques or palettes of schist in Egyptian tombs, ii. 155 n. 3
Plates or basins, divination by three, i. 237 sq., 240, 244
Plato, on the distribution of the soul in the body, ii. 221 n. 1
Plebeian myrtle-tree at Rome, ii. 168
Pleiades, beginning of year determined by observation of the, ii.
244, 245 n.
Pliny on “serpents' eggs,” i. 15;
on medicinal plants, 17;
on the touch of menstruous women, 96;
on the fire-walk of the Hirpi Sorani, ii. 14;
on the mythical springwort, 71;
on the Druidical worship of mistletoe, 76 sq.;
on the virtues of mistletoe, 78;
on the birds which deposit seeds of mistletoe, 316 n. 1;
on the different kinds of mistletoe, 317
Plough, piece of Yule log inserted in the, i. 251, 337
Ploughing in spring, custom at the first, i. 18
Ploughshare, crawling under a, as a cure, ii. 180
Plum-tree wood used for Yule log, i. 250
Plurality of souls, doctrine of the, ii. 221 sq.
Plutarch, on oak-mistletoe, ii. 318 n. 1
Pogdanzig, witches' Sabbath at, ii. 74
Pointing sticks or bones in magic, i. 14
Poitou, Midsummer fires in, i. 182, 190 sq., 340 sq.;
fires on All Saints' Day in, 246;
the Yule log in, 251 n. 1;
mugwort at Midsummer in, ii. 59
Poix, Lenten fires at, i. 113
Poland, need-fire in, i. 281 sq.
Pole, sacred, of the Arunta, i. 7
Poles, passing between two poles after a death, ii. 178 sq.;
passing between two poles in order to escape sickness or evil
spirit, ii. 179 sqq.
Pollution, menstrual, widespread fear of, i. 76 sqq.
Polygnotus, his picture of Orpheus under the willow, ii. 294
Pomerania, hills called the Blocksberg in, i. 171 n. 3
Pommerol, Dr., i. 112
Pond, G. H., on ritual of death and resurrection among the
Dacotas, ii. 269
Pongol or Feast of Ingathering in Southern India, ii. 1, 16
Pontesbury, in Shropshire, the Yule log at, i. 257
Popinjay, shooting at a, i. 194
Poplar, the white, used in sacrificing to Zeus at Olympia, ii. 90
n. 1, 91 n. 7;
black, mistletoe on, 318 n. 6
—— -wood used to kindle need-fire, i. 282
Porcupine as charm to ensure women an easy delivery, i. 49
Port Lincoln tribe of South Australia, their superstition as to
lizards, ii. 216 sq.
Porta Triumphalis at Rome, ii. 195
Portrait statues, external souls of Egyptian kings deposited in, ii.
Portreach, sacrifice of a calf near, i. 301
Poseidon makes Pterelaus immortal, ii. 103;
priest of, uses a white umbrella, i. 20 n. 1
Posidonius, Greek traveller in Gaul, ii. 32
Poso in Central Celebes, custom at the working of iron in, ii.
the Alfoors of, 222
Possession by an evil spirit cured by passing through a red-hot
chain, ii. 186
Potawatomi women secluded at menstruation, i. 89
Pots used by girls at puberty broken, i. 61, 69
Powers, extraordinary, ascribed to first-born children, i. 295
Požega district of Slavonia, need-fire in, i. 282
Prättigau in Switzerland, Lenten fire-custom at, i. 119
Prayers of adolescent girls to the Dawn of Day, i. 50 sq., 53, 98
for rain, 133
Pretence of throwing a man into fire, i. 148, 186, ii. 25
Priapus, image of, at need-fire, i. 286
Priest of Aricia and the Golden Bough, i. 1;
of Earth, taboos observed by the, 4;
of Diana at Aricia, the King of the Wood, perhaps personified
Jupiter, ii. 302 sq.;
at Nemi, 315
Priestesses not allowed to step on ground, i. 5
Priests expected to pass through fire, ii. 2, 5, 8, 9, 14
Primitive thought, its vagueness and inconsistency, ii. 301 sq.
Prince Sunless, i. 21
—— of Wales Island, Torres Strait, treatment of girls at puberty
in, i. 40
Princess royal, ceremonies at the puberty of a, i. 29, 30 sq.
Procession with lighted tar-barrels on Christmas Eve, i. 268
Processions with lighted torches through fields, gardens,
orchards, etc., i. 107 sq., 110 sqq., 113 sqq., 141,
179, 233 sq., 266, 339 sq.;
on Corpus Christi Day, 165;
to the Midsummer bonfires, 184, 185, 187, 188, 191, 192,
across fiery furnaces, ii. 4 sqq.;
of giants (effigies) at popular festivals in Europe, 33 sqq.
Profligacy at Holi festival in India, ii. 2
Prophecy, the Norse Sibyl's, i. 102 sq.
Proserpine River in Queensland, i. 39
Provence, Midsummer fires in, i. 193 sq.;
the Yule log in, 249 sqq.
Prussia, Midsummer fires in, i. 176 sq.;
mullein gathered at Midsummer in, ii. 63 sq.;
witches' Sabbath in, 74
——, Eastern, herbs gathered at Midsummer in, ii. 48 sq.;
divination by flowers on Midsummer Eve in, 53, 61;
belief as to mistletoe growing on a thorn in, 291 n. 3
Prussian custom before first ploughing in spring, i. 18
Prussians, the old, worshipped serpents, ii. 43 n. 3
Pterelaus and his golden hair, ii. 103
Puberty, girls secluded at, i. 22 sqq.;
fast and dream at, ii. 222 n. 5;
pretence of killing the novice and bringing him to life again
during initiatory rites at, 225 sqq.
566The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (Third Edition, Vol. 11 of 12)
Pueblo Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, use of bull-roarers
among the, ii. 230 n., 231
Pulayars of Travancore, their seclusion of girls at puberty, i. 69
Pulverbatch, in Shropshire, the Yule log at, i. 257;
belief as the bloom of the oak on Midsummer Eve at, ii. 292
Pumpkin, external soul in a, ii. 105
Punchkin and the parrot, story of, ii. 97 sq., 215, 220
Punjaub, supernatural power ascribed to the first-born in the, i.
passing unlucky children through narrow openings in the, ii.
Purification by stinging with ants, i. 61 sqq.;
by beating, 61, 64 sqq.;
of mourners by fire, ii. 17, 18 sq.;
after a death, 178;
by passing under a yoke, 193 sqq.
Purificatory theory of the fires of the fire-festivals, i. 329 sq.,
341, ii. 16 sqq.;
more probable than the solar theory, i. 346
Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) gathered at Midsummer,
Purra or poro, secret society in Sierra Leone, ii. 260 sq.
Puttenham, George, on the Midsummer giants, ii. 36 sq.
Pyrenees, Midsummer fires in the French, i. 193
Quarter-ill, a disease of cattle, i. 296
Quedlinburg, in the Harz Mountains, need-fire at, i. 276
Queen Charlotte Islands, the Haida Indians of, i. 44
—— of Heaven, ii. 303
—— of Summer, i. 195
Queen's County, Midsummer fires in, i. 203;
divination at Hallowe'en in, 242
Queensland, sorcery in, i. 14;
seclusion of girls at puberty in, 37 sqq.;
dread of women at menstruation in, 78;
natives of, their mode of ascertaining the fate of an absent
friend, ii. 159 sq.;
use of bull-roarers in, 233
Quimba, a secret society on the Lower Congo, ii. 256 n.
Quimper, Midsummer fires at, i. 184
Quirinus, sanctuary of, at Rome, ii. 168
Races at fire-festivals, i. 111;
to Easter bonfire, 122;
at Easter fires, 144;
with torches at Midsummer, 175.
Radium, bearing of its discovery on the probable duration of the
sun, ii. 307 n. 2
Rahu, a tribal god in India, ii. 5
Rain, Midsummer bonfires supposed to stop, i. 188, 336;
bull-roarers used as magical instruments to make, ii. 230 sqq.
568The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (Third Edition, Vol. 11 of 12)
—— -clouds, smoke made in imitation of, i. 133
—— -makers (mythical), i. 133
—— -water in Morocco, magical virtues ascribed to, i. 17 sq.
Raking a rick in the devil's name, i. 243;
the ashes, a mode of divination, 243
Ralston, W. R. S., on sacred fire of Perkunas, ii. 91 n. 3
Rama, his battle with the King of Ceylon, ii. 102
Rampart, old, of Burghead, i. 267 sq.
Ramsay, John, of Ochtertyre, on Beltane fires, i. 146 sqq.;
on Midsummer fires, 206;
on Hallowe'en fires, 230 sq.;
on burying cattle alive, 325 sq.
Rarhi, Brahmans of Bengal, their seclusion of girls at puberty, i.
Rat, external soul of medicine-man in, ii. 199
Rattan, creeping through a split, to escape a malignant spirit, ii.
Rattle used at a festival, i. 28
Rattles to frighten ghosts, i. 52
Raven clan, ii. 271
Ray-fish, cure for wound inflicted by a, i. 98 n. 1
Raymi, a festival of the summer solstice, i. 132
Reapers throw sickles blindfold at last sheaf, ii. 279 n. 4
Reaping, girdle of rye a preventive of weariness in, i. 190
Reay, in Sutherland, the need-fire at, i. 294 sq.
Red earth or paint smeared on girls at puberty, i. 30, 31;
girl's face painted red at puberty, 49 sq., 54;
women at menstruation painted, 78
—— and white, girls at puberty painted, i. 35, 38, 39, 40;
women at menstruation painted, 78
—— -hot iron chain, passing persons possessed by evil spirits
through a, ii. 186
—— Island, i. 39
—— ochre round a woman's mouth, mark of menstruation, i. 77
Redemption from the fire, i. 110